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Journal article
A Toolkit of Policies to Promote Innovation
Nicholas Bloom, John Van Reenen and Heidi Williams
August 2019
Paper No' :

Tags: innovation; productivity;

Economic theory suggests that market economies are likely to underprovide innovation because of the public good nature of knowledge. Empirical evidence from the United States and other advanced economies supports this idea. We summarize the pros and cons of different policy instruments for promoting innovation and provide a basic 'toolkit' describing which policies are most effective according to our reading of the evidence. In the short run, R&D tax credits and direct public funding seem the most productive, but in the longer run, increasing the supply of human capital (for example, relaxing immigration rules or expanding university STEM admissions) is likely more effective.