Centre for Vocational Education Research LSE RSS Email Facebook Twitter


Journal article
Smart and illicit: Who becomes an entrepreneur and do they earn more?
Ross Levine and Yona Rubinstein
May 2017
Paper No' :

Tags: health expenditure; health insurance; health services; hospital sector; monopoly; price dynamics; united states

We disaggregate the self-employed into incorporated and unincorporated to distinguish between "entrepreneurs" and other business owners. We show that the incorporated self-employed and their businesses engage in activities that demand comparatively strong nonroutine cognitive abilities, while the unincorporated and their firms perform tasks demanding relatively strong manual skills. People who become incorporated business owners tend to be more educated and- as teenagers-score higher on learning aptitude tests, exhibit greater self-esteem, and engage in more illicit activities than others. The combination of "smart" and "illicit" tendencies as youths accounts for both entry into entrepreneurship and the comparative earnings of entrepreneurs. Individuals tend to experience a material increase in earnings when becoming entrepreneurs, and this increase occurs at each decile of the distribution. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the President and Fellows of Harvard College.